Category Archives: Science Biographies and Profiles

A Deep Conversation with Rita Colwell

For over a quarter century, Rita Colwell has led a research effort that provided a more complete understanding of how one of the oldest and most chronic scourges of humanity – cholera – proliferates and spreads. But her efforts did not come easily or without challenges.

In this special presentation and open forum, she discusses her pioneering research into cholera and addresses themes and issues covered in her recently published book, “A Lab of One’s Own—One Woman’s Personal Journey Through Sexism in Science,” addressing many of the hurdles she faced as a woman scientist while advancing this research. Considered a science book for the #MeToo era, Colwell offers an astute diagnosis of how to fix the problem of sexism in science—and a celebration of the women pushing back.

Watch A Deep Conversation with Rita Colwell.


UCSD Pascal

Starting in 1974, Kenneth Bowles – who at the time directed UC San Diego’s Computing Center – began to adapt the computer language Pascal for use on so-called “microcomputers,” precursors of today’s PCs. His primary interest at the time was a programming language that would allow students to work individually on projects without waiting their turn to do batch processing on the mainframe. But Bowles also foresaw the value of portable software that would allow programmers to write something once and run it anywhere. His solution was pseudo-code – p-code for short – an intermediate language to run on each machine and serve as a uniform translator.

Since most of his fellow computer-science faculty members were involved in more theoretical research, Bowles turned instead to students to fulfill his dream. He recruited one graduate student, Mark Overgaard, and a handful of undergraduates. At one point or another, more than 70 students were involved in the UCSD Pascal project, doing everything from writing code to shipping floppy disks to research centers around the world (for a token $15 royalty fee). In the early 1980s, the University of California sold rights to the technology to SofTech Systems, which tried but failed to convince IBM to adopt UCSD Pascal as the core operating system of its first personal computers. (Bill Gates’ MS-DOS won the IBM contract.)

Bowles gained world renown for initiating and leading this project that culminated in UCSD Pascal influencing many aspects of computing that are now ubiquitous, including modern PCs and Macs as well as Sun Microsystem’s Java language, which incorporates p-code.

Mark Overgaard and other alumni who worked on the ground-breaking language for what would later be called the personal computer gathered in recently to mark the 30th anniversary of the computer language and reminisce about the influence and legacy that Kenneth Bowles had on computing, teaching, and their lives and careers.

Watch — UCSD Pascal: Celebrating the Life and Work of Kenneth Bowles